Haridwar district is in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is headquartered at Haridwar which is also its largest city. The district is ringed by the districts Dehradun in the north and east, Pauri Garhwal in the east and Uttar Pradesh districts of Muzaffarnagar and Bijnor in the south and Saharanpur in the west. It is one of the seven holiest places of Hinduism. Haridwar district came into existence on 28th December, 1988 as part of Saharanpur Divisional Commissionary. It is the most populous district of Uttarakhand state. This district is also termed as 'Gateway to Gods' and also a point of entry to Dev Bhoomi and Char Dham, namely Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri. The time when India got its independence from the British colonial subjugation, the region of present Haridwar district was a part of the then Saharanpur district, in the United Province of the British Raj; the province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh state of India. The Haridwar district came into existence on 28th December, 1988 as part of Saharanpur Divisional Commissionary. On 24th September, 1998 Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly passed the 'Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Bill', 1998'; eventually the Parliament also passed the Indian Federal Legislation-'Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000' and thus on 9th November, 2000, Haridwar district became part of the newly formed Uttarakhand (then Uttaranchal), the 27th state in the Republic of India.
Haridwar district covers an area of about 2360 km². Geographically, the district lies at 29°95'N latitude, 78°16'E longitude and 314 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 24.80% forest area of total geographical area. The river Ganges flows through it in a series of channels separated from each other called aits, most of which are well wooded. Haridwar is one of the first towns where Ganga emerges from the mountains to touch the planes. Other minor seasonal streams are Ranipur Rao, Pathri Rao, Rawii Rao, Harnaui Rao, Begam Nadi etc. A large part of the district is forested. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 884.3 mm in the year of 2019-2020.
The district is administratively subdivided into three tehsils, i.e., Haridwar, Roorkee and Laksar and has 24 towns and 612 villages. Haridwar Lok Sabha constituency comprises two districts, namely Haridwar and Dehradun (part). This Lok Sabha constituency comprises 14 Vidhan Sabha segments. Moreover, the district comprises 24 towns and 612 Villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
As per 2011 census, Haridwar had population of 1,890,422 of which male and female were 1,005,295 and 885,127, respectively. With regards to sex ratio in Haridwar, it stood at 880 females per 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011, the population growth rate in the district was 30.63% out of which 29.54 were males and 31.88% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 64.27% and 34.28% of the total population. The population density in the district is 801 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district are Hindi and Urdu with 88.51% and 9.66%. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 39,241 out of which 20,944 were males and 18,297 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 10,593 out of which 6,937 were males and 3,656 were females.
Agriculture is the mainstay of this well irrigated district. Industrial estates State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand (SIDCUL) and Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) have turned Haridwar into industrial district which contributes highly to the district’s economy. The SIDCUL has now established ‘industrial development zone’ in the district, adjacent to Shivalik Nagar near Haridwar, to encourage industrialization, with industrial giants like Hindustan Lever, Dabur, Mahendra & Mahendra and Havells having moved in. Hindu pilgrims who visit the holy places and attend the religious fairs in large numbers contribute to district’s economy. In Haridwar district major minerals available are sand, stone and gypsum. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 58,16,824 lakh at current price and Rs. 49,66,149 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 33,75,110 lakh at current price and Rs. 28,69,545 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 2,54,050 at current price and Rs. 2,16,143 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Haridwar is famous for cultural education and academic institutions of excellence. Gurukul Kangri university established in 1902 is known worldwide for disseminating cultural education. Dev Sanskriti university established in 2001 also contributes largely to cultural education of the state. Besides, University of Technical and Industrial Education, Roorkee is one of the renowned education centers in India. Education sector has highly flourished in the district. Vishwa Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, a Sanskrit university, set up by Govt. of Uttarakhand, is the only university in the world dedicated to studies of ancient Sanskrit scriptures and books. State Ayuevedic College & Hospital Rishikul is the oldest Ayurvedic Medical College of India. It is situated near Devpura in Haridwar on the banks of Upper Ganges Canal. Govt Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Gurukul Kangri of HNB Garhwal University is also one of the oldest Ayurvedic medical colleges in India. It is situated in Gurukul Kangri University campus. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 73.43% including 81.04% are males and 64.79% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 11,78,354 out of which 6,91,411 are males and 4,86,943 are females.
Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ born on 15th August 1959 is a senior member of Bharatiya Janata Party. He was Chief Minister of Uttarakhand from 2009 to 2011. He is a Member of Parliament in 16th Lok Sabha. He represents the Haridwar Parliamentary Constituency.
This district is considered as one of the most sacred by pilgrims in Hindu religion. It is famous for the Kumb Mela celebrated here once in every three years. Har ki Pauri is the most sacred Ghat built by King Vikramaditya in memory of his brother Bhatrihari, who is said to have meditated on the banks of Ganga in Haridwar. Canal Centenary Bridge gives a panoramic view of the ghats and Ganga canal. Maya Devi Temple is an ancient temple dedicated to Goddess Maya Devi, the Adhisthatri deity of Haridwar. It is regarded as one of the Siddhapeethas and according to mythology the heart and navel of Goddess Sati had fallen over here. Mansa Devi Temple is perched atop the Bilwa Parwat and can be reached by a ropeway with its cable cars or on foot. A statue of the Goddess here has three mouths and five arms, while the other one has eight arms. The temple commands a fine view of Haridwar. Daksha Mahadev Temple is an ancient Shiva (Mahadev) temple located in the south Kankhal town. Chandi Devi Temple is set atop Neel Parvat on the banks of Ganga. According to a legend Goddess Chandi killed demons Chanda-Munda, the army chief of demon kings Shumbh Nisnumbha here. Sapt Rishi Ashram and Sapt Sarovar, a legendary site which is said to be the place where Saptarshis (seven sages) meditated and river Ganga, not wanting to disturb them split herself into seven streams (Sapt Sarovar) around them. Patanjali Yogpeeth is renowned as Yoga Brand Institution across the world. Millions of visitors visit here year after year for health care and spiritual experience.