Prior to the 16th century, the history of the Koriya region is quite vague. Rajputs were first to rule here. It was the princely state under British rule, the other princely state that lay within the Koriya district was Chang Bhakar. After India got its independence in the year 1947, the rulers of Koriya and Chang Bhakar acceded to the Union of India on 1st January, 1948 and both were made part of Surguja district of Madhya Pradesh state. The district of Koriya came into existence on 25st May, 1998 when it was carved out of the Surguja district. After the formation of the new state of Chhattisgarh on 1st November, 2000, Koriya District became part of the new state. At present it is a part of the Red Corridor.
Geographically, the district encompasses a total area of 6,604 sq km. It lies at 23°52'N latitude, 82°51'E longitude and 700 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 62.16% forest area of total geographical area. It is bounded by Sidhi District of Madhya Pradesh on the North, Korba District on the South, Surguja District on the East, and Anuppur District of Madhya Pradesh on the West. It has a vast hilly range. The district has a mild summer, a bearable winter and a high rainfall. The actual rainfall in the district was 1228.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 5 sub-districts, 8 towns and 636 villages. Hindi is its official language. The district of Koriya came into existence on 25th May 1998 in the state of Chhattisgarh with its headquarters located at Baikunthpur town, situated at a distance of 308 km. from the state capital.
Demographically, according to 2011 census, the district has a total number of 1,52,075 households with a total of 6,58,917 comprising 3,34,737 are males and 3,24,180 are females. The density of population of the district is 100 (persons per sq km.). The sex ratio is pegged at 968 (females per 1000 males) while the child ratio stands at 968 (females per 1000 males). As per 2011 census the percentage of major religions practiced by the people of this region is Hindu with 91.70% of the total population. The population growth rate during the period 2001-2011 was 12.38% out of which 11.12% were males and 13.72% were females. According to 2011 census, the percentage of the principal languages of the region is Hindi with 94.29%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 13,144 out of which 6,743 were males and 6,398 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,993 out of which 2,324 were males and 1,669 were females.
Economically, the district is dependent on agriculture primarily. The GDDP or Gross District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 1,74,348 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,31,842 lakh at Constant prices during the period 1999-2000. The NDDP, or Net District Domestic Product during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 1,56,071 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 1,18,067 lakh at Constant prices during the period 1999-2000. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, at factor cost during the period 2006-07 was Rs. 24,071 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,484 lakh at Constant prices during the period 1999-2000.
Education wise, according to 2011 census, the literacy rate is 70.64% including 80.37% are males and 60.6% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 3,97,823 comprising 2,29,923 are males and 1,67,900 are females. The district has a number of primary, secondary and higher secondary schools. Several graduation colleges are also available here.
The district has several famous historical and religious places to visit. These places are Amritdhara Waterfall, Ramdhara and Gavar Ghat Waterfalls, Guru Ghasidas National Park, Hasdev River, Jagnnath Mandir, Jogi Math, Gangi Rani, Roc Penting, Rajmahal, Jhumka Bandh, Gej Bandh, Aaruni Bandh, Hanuman Mandir, Shri Karteskwar Shiv Mandir, etc. During 2018, there were 27,841 domestic tourists who visited the above places.